Medical Microbiology Department, College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq.
Medical Microbiology Department, College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
Document Type : Review Paper
The novel coronavirus disease, COVID-19, impose a challenge on scientists and physicians in terms of understanding the phases of viral pathogenesis and host immunopathogenesis that lead to the fatal complications of the disease. Three pillars have been thought to play essential role in determining the prognosis of COVID-19, namely the viral load of SARS-CoV-2, the count and functionality of T lymphocytes and the crossreactivity of T lymphocytes with common cold coronaviruses. Collectively, these three factors might constitute a triad governs the time-based and phase-based progression of COVID-19
patients. This review discusses the role of this triad in COVID-19 and presents the so far accumulated knowledge and research that justify the central role of this triad of factors in disease prognosis. Understanding the factors control disease progression is most important in helping physicians to treat the multi-phased host-microbe disease.
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