Thyroid cancer is consider the most common of the endocrine system malignancies, also it
represents less than 1% of all tumors in human. Beta-2-microglobulin protein (β2M) is a low
molecular weight polypeptide (11800 Dalton), it is found on the surface of cells which contains
nucleus except red blood cells. It is a small subunit and the light chain of major histocompatibility
complex class I ( MHC- 1) also known as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) in human.
Aim of study:
Detection of the possibility of using Beta-2-Microglobulin protein as a marker for thyroid cancer.
A total of 49 patients with thyroid cancer, their mean age 37.77±13.84 years ranged (18-76 years)
were included in this study and healthy age-matched control group were 32 healthy donors, their
mean age 38.12±12.29 years ranged (19- 69 years) collected from healthy volunteers. Serum
creatinine level was determined by automated clinical chemistry analyzer. In addition to Beta-2-
Microglobulin protein was determined by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay technique.
The results of serum creatinine level showed a normal level of serum creatinine for all subjects
(healthy control and patients) except 14 patients with thyroid cancer who had a level of serum
creatinine out of normal range were excluded. Also the results showed significant increase (p=
0.0000001) in mean value of serum β2M protein in patients with thyroid cancer (group B)
compared to healthy control (group A). Also the results showed no significant correlation between
β2M protein and age (r= 0.153 , p-value 0.379). Also no significant correlation between β2M
protein and BMI (r= -0.092, p-value 0.598). Moreover, receiver operating characteristics ROC
showed β2M level excellent predictor in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer (area under the curve
AUC= 0.970 p<0.001).
A level of serum β2M is elevated in thyroid cancer and can be used as a marker for thyroid cancer
and an assistant in the diagnosis of this disease.