- Ueda P, Lung TW, Clarke P, Danaei G. Application of the 2014 NICE cholesterol guidelines in the English population: a cross-sectional analysis.Br J Gen Pract [Internet]. 2017 Sep [cited 2020 ; 67:e598-e608. Availablefrom:https://bjgp.org/content/67/662/e598.
- Elnaem MH, Mohamed MH, Huri HZ, Azarisman SM, Elkalmi RM. Statin therapy prescribing for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A review of current evidence and challenges. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2017; 9: 80-87.
- American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes-2016: Introduction. Diabetes Care [Internet]. 2016 Jan [cited 2020 Sep 22]; 39(Suppl. 1): S1–S2. Available from: https://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/39/Supplement_1/S1
- Kim BK, Kim HC, Ha KH, Kim DJ. Application of New Cholesterol Guidelines to the Korean Adult Diabetic Patients. J Korean Med Sci 2015; 30: 1612-17
- Amen SO, Baban ST, Yousif SH, Hawez AH, Baban ZT, Jalal DM. Prevalence of the most frequent risk factors in Iraqi patients with acute myocardial infarction. Med J Babylon 2020; 17: 6-18.
- Yusuf S, Bosch J, Dagenais G, Zhu J, Xavier D, Liu L, et al. Cholesterol Lowering in Intermediate-Risk Persons without Cardiovascular Disease. N Engl J Med 2016; 374: 2021-31.
- Mula-Abed WA, Chilmeran SK. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in the Iraqi adult population. Saudi Me J 2007; 28: 1868-74.
- Al Rasadi K, Almahmeed W, AlHabib KF, Abifadel M, Farhan HA, Alsifri S, et al. Dyslipidaemia in the Middle East: Current status and a call for action. Atherosclerosis. 2016; 252:182-87.
- Akhabue E, Rittner SS, Carroll JE, Crawford PM, Dant L, Laws R, et al. Implications of American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Cholesterol Guidelines on Statin Underutilization for Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes Mellitus Among Several US Networks of Community Health Centers. J Am Heart Assoc [Internet]. 2017 Jul [cited 2020; 6: [11pp.]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5586289/
10. Koo BK. Statin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Metab J 2014;38:32-34.
11. Byrne P, Cullinan J, Smith A, Smith SM. Statins for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: an overview of systematic reviews. BMJ Open [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2020; 9:12. Available from: https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/9/4/e023085
12. Mortensen MB, Kulenovic I, Falk E. Statin use and cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients developing a first myocardial infarction. Cardiovasc Diabetol [Internet]. 2016 May [cited 2020 ;15:8pp.AvailablefromPMC: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4882784/
13. Jones NR, Fischbacher CM, Guthrie B, Leese G, Lindsay RS, et al. Factors associated with statin treatment for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in people within 2 years following diagnosis of diabetes in Scotland, 2006–2008. Diabet Med 2014;31:640-46.
14. Johansen ME, Green LA. Cardiovascular Risk and Statin Use in the United States. Ann Fam Med 2014;12:215-23.
15. Stone NJ, Robinson JG, Lichtenstein AH, Merz NB, Blum CB, Eckel RH, et al. 2013 ACC/AHA guidelineon the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascularrisk in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American HeartAssociation Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation 2014; 129: S1–S45.
16. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes-2017: Cardiovascular Disease and Risk Management. Diabetes Care [Internet]. 2017 Jan [cited 2020 Sep 22]; 40(Suppl. 1):S75–S87. Available from: https://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/40/Supplement_1/S75.
17. Catapano AL, Graham I, De Backer G, Wiklund O, Chapman MJ, Drexel H, et al. 2016 ESC/EAS Guidelines for the Management of Dyslipidaemias. Eur Heart J 2016; 37: 2999–3058.
18. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Cardiovascular disease: risk assessment and reduction, including lipid modification. London: NICE; 2014. [cited 2020 Sep 29]. Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg181.
19. Mansour A, Al Douri F. Diabetes in Iraq: Facing the Epidemic. A systematic Review. Wulfenia 2015; 22:258-73.
20. Mansour A, Ajeel N. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease among patients with type 2 diabetes in Basrah. World J Diabetes 2013;4: 82-87.
21. Collins R, Reith C, Emberson J,Armitage J, Baigent C, Blackwell L, et al. Interpretation of the evidence for the efficacy and safety of statin therapy. Lancet 2016;388:2532-61.
22. Colhoun HM, Betteridge DJ, Durrington PN, Hitman GA, Neil HA, Livingstone SJ, et al. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with atorvastatin in type 2 diabetes in the Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2004;364: 685-96.
23. Murphy C, Bennett K, Fahey T, Shelley E, Graham I, Kenny RA. Statin use in adults at high risk of cardiovascular disease mortality: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). BMJ Open [Internet]. 2015[cited 2020;5:9. Available from: https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/5/7/e008017.long
24. Ridker PM, Danielson E, Fonseca FA, Genest J, Gotto AM, Kastelein JJ, et al. Rosuvastatin to Prevent Vascular Events in Men and Women with Elevated C-Reactive Protein. N Engl J Med 2008; 359: 2195-207.
25. Bruckert E, Ferrières J. Evidence supporting primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases with statins: Gaps between updated clinical results and actual practice. Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2014 Mar; 107:188-200.
26. Fung CSC, Wan EYF, Chan AKC, Lam CLK. Statin use reduces cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality amongst Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 5-year cohort study. BMC Cardiovasc Disord [Internet]. 2017 Jun [cited 2020;17:9. Available from: https://bmccardiovascdisord.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12872-017-0599-x.
27. Garcia-Gil M, Comas-Cufí M, Blanch J, Martí R, Ponjoan A, Alves-Cabratosa L, et al. Effectiveness of statins as primary prevention in people with different cardiovascular risk: A population-based cohort study. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2018;104:719–32.
28. Demoz GT, Wahdey S, Kasahun GG, Hagazy K, Kinfe DG, Tasew H, et al. Prescribing pattern of statins for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes: insights from Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes [Internet]. 2019 Jul [cited 2020;12:7. Available from: https://bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13104-019-4423-9
29. Gupta R, Lodha S, Sharma KK, Sharma SK, Gupta S, Asirvatham AJ, et al. Evaluation of statin prescriptions in type 2 diabetes: India Heart Watch-2. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2020; 4:7. Available from: https://drc.bmj.com/content/4/1/e000275
30. Elnaem MH, Nik Mohamed MH, Azarisman SM. Patterns of statin therapy prescribing among hospitalized patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in two Malaysian tertiary hospitals. Trop J Pharm Res 2017;16: 3005-11.
31. Hammad MA, Syed Sulaiman SA, Aziz NA, Mohamed Noor DA. Prescribing statins among patients with type 2 diabetes: The clinical gap between the guidelines and practice. J Res Med Sci [Internet]. 2019 Feb[cited 2020;24:6.Available from: https://www.jmsjournal.net/article.asp?issn=1735-1995;year=2019;volume=24;issue=1;spage =15;epage=15;aulast=Hammad#google_vignette
32. Banks E, Crouch SR, Korda RJ, Stavreski B, Page K, Thurber KA, et al. Absolute risk of cardiovascular disease events, and blood pressure- and lipid-lowering therapy in Australia. Med J Aust [Internet]. 2016 May [cited 2020;204:8. Available from: https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2016/204/8/absolute-risk-cardiovascular-disease-events-and-blood-pressure-and-lipid
33. Steen DL, Khan I, Becker L, Foody JM, Gorcyca K, Sanchez RJ, et al. Patterns and predictors of lipid-lowering therapy in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes mellitus in 2014: Insights from a large US managed-care population. Clin Cardiol. 2017; 40:155-62.
34. Ting RZ, Yang X, Yu LW, Luk AO, Kong AP, Tong PC, et al. Lipid control and use of lipid-regulating drugs for prevention of cardiovascular events in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients: a prospective cohort study. Cardiovasc Diabetol [Internet]. 2010 Nov [cited 2020; 9:9 . Available from PMC: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3004819/
35. Sheppard JP, Fletcher K, McManus RJ, Mant J. Missed opportunities in prevention of cardiovascular disease in primary care: A cross-sectional study. Br J Gen Pract [Internet]. 2014 Jan [cited 2020;64:e38-e46. Available from PMC: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3876174/
36. Mottur-Pilson C, Snow V, Bartlett K. Physician Explanations for Failing to Comply with “Best Practices”. Eff Clin Pract 2001; 4: 207-13.
37. Zaidan ZJ, Hussein AM, Ahmed SM. Study of Dyslipidemia in Iraqi Hypertension Patients in Tikrit City. MLU 2020; 20: 516-21.
38. Reiner Ž, Sonicki Z, Tedeschi-Reiner E. Physicians' perception, knowledge and awareness of cardiovascular risk factors and adherence to prevention guidelines: The PERCRO-DOC survey. Atherosclerosis 2010; 213: 598–603.
39. Bos JM, Natsch S, van den Bemt P, Pot JL, Nagtegaal JE, Wieringa A, et al. A multifaceted intervention to reduce guideline non‑adherence among prescribing physicians in Dutch hospitals. Int J Clin Pharm 2017; 39: 1211–19.
40. Cabana MD, Rand CS, Powe NR, Wu AW, Wilson MH, Abboud PC, et al. Why Don’t Physicians Follow Clinical Practice Guidelines? A Framework for Improvement. JAMA 1999; 28: 1458-65.
41. Mosca L, Linfante AH, Benjamin EJ, Berra K, Hayes NS, Walsh BW, et al. National Study of Physician Awareness and Adherence to Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Guidelines. Circulation 2005; 111: 499-510.
42. Clough JD, Martin SS, Navar AM, Lin L, Hardy NC, Rogers U, et al. Association of Primary Care Providers’ Beliefs of Statins for Primary Prevention and Statin Prescription. J Am Heart Assoc [Internet]. 2019 Feb [cited 2020;8:8. Available from PMC: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6405576/
43. Fürthauer J, Flamm M, Sönnichsen A. Patient and physician related factors of adherence to evidence based guidelines in diabetes mellitus type 2, cardiovascular disease and prevention: a cross sectional study. BMC Family Practice [Internet]. 2013 Apr [cited 2020;14:8. Available from PMC: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3623850/