Host immune response especially cell mediated immunity play an important role in the origin and progression of head and neck cancer.
A total of 63 terminal untreatable stage IV head and neck cancer patients were investigated for cellular immune response before and during S2- complex (synthetic -2) immunotherapy from 1992-1994 in Iraqi Medical Collage – Al-Nahrain University. Cellular immunity were investigated including leukocytes, lymphocytes, T and B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes subsets CD4+ , CD8+ and HLA-DR + cells using monoclonal antibodies by indirect immunoflourescense test. Their results were compared with twenty normal apparently healthy individuals.
The mean total leukocytes and neutrophil numbers were significantly higher in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients while lymphocytes numbers (T and B) were significantly low. Lymphocytes subsets showed significantly decreased in CD4 % and CD8% not affected. CD4/CD8 ratio was lower than normal. HLA-DR + cells were higher in HNC patients. S2-complex administration showed increased in T and B cells on individual basis , increased CD4 , CD8, HLA-DR+ cells and CD4/CD8 ratio.
Immunotherapy acts as an adjuvant to other modalities of treatment without affecting normal human cells. S2-complex induced normalization of peripheral lymphocytes and cause immunorestoration of immunologic function in vivo.